由可再生资源制成的生物柴油的一般化学名称是FAME(脂肪酸甲酯)。 它用于补充或交换矿物柴油和天然气,用于为固定发动机和越野车辆提供动力。

当动物和植物脂肪被酯化以制造生物柴油时,它就会产生。 在催化剂(通常是氢氧化钾)的存在下,这些高分子量的油脂与短链醇结合形成低分子量酯(FAME)。

目前,泵式柴油中可能发现高达7%的名声,但更大的浓度,也许高达100%的名声(B100),并非闻所未闻。

酯交换过程包括从甘油三酯(油/脂)的骨架中分离出三个烷氧基。 在与醇的反应中生成三种低分子量酯(FAME),甘油作为副产物释放。 反应的催化剂是氢氧化钾。

什么材料可以用于制造FAME生物柴油?

FAME燃料可以由多种油和动物脂肪制成。 最常用的油脂有:

动物脂肪
豆油
油菜籽油
葵花油
棕榈油
用过的食用油

吸湿性甲酯构成生物柴油。 这意味着它们比用石油制造的柴油更能保持悬浮在燃料中的水分。 与其他燃料相比,由石油制成的燃料倾向于在储罐底部作为一个独特的层析出水。

每种微生物都有独特的FAME特征(微生物指纹)。 在酯化后,一些培养微生物的甘油三酯、脂肪酸和其他特定脂质变得足够挥发性,可以用气相色谱分析,以提供FAME剖面图。 这些剖面图可用于微生物源追踪(MST)鉴定新的细菌种类和检测病原菌株。

例如,要确定水是否受粪便污染,可从水样本中抽取培养细菌的剖面图,与已识别的致病细菌的剖面图作比较。

当水可能污染柴油时,它为微生物的发展创造了有利的环境,并可能导致细菌、酵母和细菌在整个燃料中传播。 FAME是细菌营养的完美来源,是可生物降解的。 如果不处理,污染可能会永久地损害燃料。

我怎样才能防止名人燃料的污染?

防止汽油中FAME燃料污染的最简单的方法就是定期由专家检查。 说到柴油, 每年进行一次检查通常是个明智的主意.

虽然每年进行一次专业检查是个好主意,但你也应该定期自己检查,看看是否有任何污染迹象。

这些活动通常包括:

加油后机器或发动机出现问题
油箱裂缝及腐蚀证据
油箱里可能会有水渍。

检查柴油机时,如发现有上述症状,应尽快安排清洗燃料,以免出现更严重的问题。

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