在过去几年中,管理和处置生物废物的问题变得越来越重要。 印度政府(环境和森林部)公告公布后。 1998年7月27日第460号法令规定,医疗行政人员处理和处理这类废物的义务现在已成为一项立法义务。

所有在职医疗、牙科、护理、辅助医疗及废物处理员,例如清洁工/清洁工,均须接受妥善训练,以处理及管理生物废物。 这一点同样重要。 本文的写作意图就是提供这些基本知识。

在人或动物的诊断、治疗或免疫过程中,或在相关研究活动期间,或在制造或测试生物过程中产生的任何废物,均称为生物医疗废物。

下列清单有10个不同的类别。

人体解剖学废料
动物粪便
微生物及生物科技废物。
废物锐利
受污染废物
细胞毒性药物和过期药物。
固体废物
液体废物
烧毁的灰烬
化学废物

根据患者的健康问题性质、诊疗种类、医院废弃物管理程序等,每天每张病床会产生不同数量的生物废弃物。

在贫困国家,体重从1-2公斤到4.5公斤不等,而在像美国这样的工业化国家,体重是4.5公斤。 在富裕国家,只有10%至15%的垃圾具有传染性,但在印度,这一比例在45.5%至50%之间,需要特别护理。

废物管理技术

最终,医疗废弃物根据处理方法,通过燃烧、蒸煮、微波加热、生物治疗、化学治疗等进行处理。 自1990年代以来,由于政府强迫其他方法进入市场,焚化这一以前最为普遍的技术的使用已经减少。

这样做的方法很少,有:

焚烧——1997年以前,焚烧被用来清除90%以上的传染性医疗废物。 由于环境保护局要求的变化,供应商正在寻找替代的处置方法。 对于病理垃圾,如身体部位和可识别的组织,这仍然是唯一采用的方法。

高压灭菌-通过蒸汽处理使生物有害废物不具有传染性。 这些垃圾可以在较少的限制下焚烧,或者在灭菌后通常被弃置在固体废物填埋场。

微波——使用强大的设备对危险的医疗废物进行微波处理是使其无毒的另一项技术。 这项技术,就像高压蒸煮一样,允许以后标准的垃圾填埋处理或燃烧。

化学-加入活性化学品使废物变得惰性,可中和某些种类的化学废物。 这通常只用于与化学有关的垃圾。

生物——酶在这个实验过程中被用来处理生物医疗废物,以摧毁危险的传染性有机体。 它仍在开发中,很少在实际生活中使用。

医疗专业人员遵循一些基本的最佳做法,可以防止大多数医疗废物问题。 员工应该知道这些规定,然后将每一种垃圾分类归类到相应的、颜色编码的垃圾桶中。

所有货柜均须妥为记录,并按废物类别加上标签。 这些最佳做法可由设施在信誉良好的医疗废物处理企业的协助下实施。

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