作为生物膜的组成部分或与生物膜相互作用的一般蛋白质称为膜蛋白。 根据膜蛋白的位置,膜蛋白可以分为许多大类。

整体膜蛋白可以渗透膜(跨膜),也可以与膜的一侧或两侧结合。

它们是细胞膜的永久组成部分(整体单态)。 来自外周膜的蛋白质暂时与细胞膜结合。

这些膜的大部分工作是由膜蛋白完成的,膜蛋白是细胞膜的组成部分或与细胞膜相互作用。 约三分之一的人类蛋白质是膜蛋白,负责调节生物细胞生存所必需的活动。

膜蛋白存在于整个膜的许多位置,并且有各种各样的结构变化。 它们执行各种任务,在给定的膜上发现的蛋白质的数量和种类可能会改变。

膜结构

膜蛋白的氨基酸按极性分布:

非极性和疏水性氨基酸直接与脂质双层相互作用。
极性(亲水性)氨基酸的内表面面对水状流体。
跨膜蛋白质通常采用两种叔结构之一:

螺旋束和单螺旋
α桶(常见于通道蛋白中)

膜功能

膜蛋白能执行多种不同的任务。 这些包括:

连接点:两个单元格连接的点。

超过50%的当代药物以膜蛋白为主要靶点。 心脏病、阿尔茨海默氏症和囊性纤维化是膜蛋白相关的人类疾病中的少数。

蛋白质是一种酶。 因此,嵌入膜蛋白有时可能是一种酶,其活性区域暴露在脂质双层外分子中。

某些代谢途径的步骤,如将乳糖分解为碳水化合物,然后分解为单糖,可以通过这些酶膜蛋白群进行。

膜蛋白在细胞识别和识别中的作用是另一个关键。 免疫系统的这种特殊功能是有益的,因为它有助于人体识别例如可能成为感染源的外来细胞。 糖蛋白是一类能够进行细胞识别的膜蛋白。

来自相邻细胞的膜蛋白可能结合在各种连接处,包括紧密连接和间隙连接。

这个过程促进细胞之间的物质转移和细胞间通信。

膜蛋白提供各种关键任务,帮助细胞沟通,形状维护,化学信使带来的变化,以及材料的运输和共享。

膜蛋白也能帮助疾病的传播,因为它们帮助免疫系统识别体内潜在的危险异物。

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