硝酸:是什么?
与硝酸盐共轭的酸是硝酸。 HNO3是氮原子与两个氧原子以及一个羟基之间的键的符号。 它极易溶于水,是一种强大的氧化剂和良好的导电体。 其分子量为63.013g/mol。 硝酸的颜色从浅黄色到深棕色不等。 它的烟雾通常是红色的。 这些烟雾有一种强烈的呛人的气味,而且毒性极大。 这种液体形式对金属、一些塑料甚至组织都有腐蚀性. 在处理硝酸时,应小心使用适当的PPE。
硝酸的化学性质
化学名称:HNO3
分子量:63.012克/摩尔
密度:1.41克厘米3[68%体重],1.51克厘米3
熔点:231K(42℃;44℃)。
沸点:83℃(181°F;356K),此时68%的溶液沸腾。
无色、黄色或红色的冒烟液体外观
刺鼻的呛鼻气味
水溶解度:100%混合
磁化率:1..99 105厘米3/165
硝酸在许多不同的工艺和工业中广泛使用。 硝酸的新用途经常成为专利开发的主题。 以下是目前最常用的硝酸用途:
硝酸的十大用途
除害剂
制肥是硝酸的主要工业应用。 硝酸,作为硝酸铵,与氨结合是一种奇妙的肥料。 硝酸钙是一种额外的合成肥料。 在全国各地,农场都在使用这些肥料。
爆炸物
使用硝酸生产多种炸药,包括硝酸甘油和三硝酸甘油(TNT)。 这些是军用级别的,用于国防。
胶粘剂
食品包装和纸板粘合剂中的一种常见成分是硝酸。
医疗用途
硝酸纯正,具有腐蚀性,可用于去除疣和疖子。 稀释后可以治疗消化不良。
金属净化
铂、金和银是贵金属的例子,可以使用硝酸清洗和净化。 当与盐酸结合时,它产生水王,这种物质甚至可以溶解铂和黄金。 通常,珠宝商会净化贵金属。
中间染料
许多工业染料在硝酸转化为硝酸钙铵后,可以用硝酸进行加工。
蚀刻
硝酸和酒精可以用来蚀刻各种金属,包括铜、青铜和黄铜。 通常,这些用于家庭装饰。
A. 毒品
在比色试验中,为了区分海洛因和吗啡,可以使用硝酸。 此外,关键是能够识别LSD的斑点测试。
室内装潢涂料
家具清漆的主要成分是硝酸。 当它加入有色颜料时,它经常被用作漆。 在某些情况下,它甚至可以人工老化木材,如松树和枫树。
实验室应用
硝酸是实验室工作的重要化学物质。 作为pH缓冲液、清洁剂、金属分析需要清洗的水样防腐剂等功能。
由于氮气在众多不同的行业中被使用,因此列出前10名氮气用途只是表面上的问题。 它还有以下功能:
液体火箭燃料主要成分
塑料生产中使用的关键部件之一
食品加工厨房的清洁剂.

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