聚烯烃仅由饱和的C-C和C-H键组成，它们的键强度使其具有化学惰性和可降解性。 虽然聚苯乙烯的芳香环易受亲电化学的影响，但它具有与聚烯烃相同的聚合物骨架。 因此，与聚酯、聚酰胺和聚氨酯之间含有不稳定的羰基的连接不同，它们不容易通过化学（如溶剂分解）或酶法降解。 尽管存在这些障碍，将废塑料回收成高价值产品的概念最近已受到重视。 (9-11) 废塑料在无氧或无催化剂条件下热分解成蜡和燃料，是目前回收聚烯烃和聚苯乙烯废物最成熟的技术，与其他技术相比，它具有若干明显的优势。该技术不仅适用于中、低质量的废塑料上行循环，而且适用于对混合塑料流体的耐受。 然而，由于所需的厌氧条件，产品流仅限于碳氢化合物（和焦炭）。 催化剂在提高产品质量、收率和选择性方面已显示出希望，
聚乙烯和聚丙烯是当今世界上使用最广泛的两种塑料。 只有HDPE，广泛用于耐用的容器（如洗涤剂瓶）和塑料家具，被广泛回收。 相反,LDPE的分支范围更广,因此拉伸强度比HDPE低,因此可用于包装和塑料袋。 聚丙烯的韧性和耐化学性使其可用于广泛的工业应用，包括仪表板、管道涂料、塑料家具和纺织品。 聚苯乙烯最常用于食品和消费品(例如电脑和化妆品)的包装。 聚苯乙烯虽然是都市废物的主要成分之一,但由于其种类繁多,特别是在共混物和共聚物中广泛使用,故难以循环再造。 此外,占聚苯乙烯废物很大一部分的膨胀聚苯乙烯(例如发泡胶)在某一特定物质中占较大体积,因而导致运输成本上升。 处理设施。
今天，欧洲在塑料分类和回收利用方面处于世界领先地位。 分拣工作涉及将一种塑料从另一种塑料中分离出来，因为聚合物的混合物会降低回收产品的机械性能:例如，必须将PVC从聚乙烯中除去，以防止PVC分解为氯化氢引起下游的腐蚀问题。 尽管技术取得了重大进步，但回收后废弃塑料仍然是一个巨大的挑战。
聚烯烃和聚苯乙烯的化学不反应性使其在合成后的化学官能化方面具有挑战性。 它们的低极性使得它们与许多含有极性氧基的聚合物不相容，进一步限制了它们的消费后命运。 在这些惰性塑料上引入反应官能团（如醇、羰基和胺）的能力是非常可取的，因为它们为进一步适应具体用途的化学改性提供了充分的机会。 此外，这些改性保留了母聚合物的力学性能，并增加了与其他聚合物的相容性，从而扩大了应用空间。
除了聚合后功能化之外，使这些塑料增值的另一个战略是利用废聚烯烃和聚苯乙烯作为生产贵重商品化学品的原料（如脂肪族短链羧酸和芳香族）。 高分子骨架中强未反应的C-C键的化学裂解和功能化是不可避免的，需要高反应试剂和苛刻的反应条件。 通常，这些反应会产生一种复杂的低选择性产物混合物，必须进一步纯化。 然而，最近的进展在相对温和的条件下实现了这一点，在有限数量的产品中观察到某种程度的选择性
许多科学、后勤、金融、社会和经济挑战必须克服，才能使这种循环利用技术成为现实。 由于需要专门的反应条件、大量副产品的生产以及过度使用苛刻的试剂、有毒溶剂和昂贵的利基催化剂，本文讨论的大多数程序无法合理地扩大。 虽然这些在研究的早期阶段是不可避免的，但在设计化学时必须考虑实际的可行性。 最后，如果新开发的化学工艺的经济学不能与现有的自下而上的聚合物合成技术竞争，这些研究工作将沦为学术好奇心。 此外，塑料的上游循环过程必须抵抗污染的塑料废物，处理混合塑料废物流是一个更大的挑战。 乐观地看，塑料降解为有用小分子的可能性可能已经达到，穆拉技术公司将在2021年第二季度开工建设世界上第一座商业规模的水热工厂就是明证。 该厂利用SCW将各种塑料，包括食物垃圾污染的塑料，转化成碳氢化合物液体和油类，如石脑油、馏分气油、重气油和重蜡残渣。 此外，Hakkarainen、Chou和Sen在几个例子中使用了真实世界的废塑料产品，将这些惰性塑料分解为羧酸。
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