可以区分三种材料:允许电子通过的导体、阻碍电子流动的绝缘体和只在特定情况下允许电子流动的半导体。 它们不同的频带间隙可能是说明它们之间有何不同的最好方法。
一种材料中的能级称为带隙,它是不存在电子的能级。 由于导体没有带隙,电子可以自由地通过它们产生电流。 作为示例的导体包括铁、铜、银、金和铝。 由于带隙宽,陶瓷、玻璃、橡胶和石油等绝缘体阻挡了电子的流动。

p型和n型半导体

纯硅和锗晶体类似于绝缘体,即使施加电压也几乎不会导电。 这是由于电子的晶格,它几乎不允许电子移动,并安全地固定它们。
然而,当掺入少量的杂质,如磷时,它释放出一些电子,并给出晶体导体样特征。 “n型半导体”是指产生电子的杂质过剩的半导体,”p型半导体”是指硼等电子缺陷杂质的半导体(“p”代表正极)。 电子空穴代替电子,在p型半导体中充当电荷载体,其行为就像正电荷的电子在流动一样。

晶体管是一种增加电流的装置。

被称为晶体管的半导体器件用于开关或放大电脉冲。 将转移和电阻这两个短语组合起来构成名称晶体管。 半导体达到整流效果后,人们需要一种半导体装置来放大电报和电话的电信号。 这导致了晶体管的发展。
1960年,在贝尔实验室,达文康和M.M.阿塔拉创造了有史以来第一个MOS晶体管。 现在使用的晶体管大多是MOS晶体管。
它们由p型衬底壁组成,将n型衬底的两部分隔开。 当提供正栅极电压时,p型基板的顶部通过感应成为导体,从而减少势垒,实现电子流动。

半导体工业日益增长的市场.

今天,电导率可以被一种或多种方法自由操纵的材料通常被称为半导体。 换句话说,半导体是任何可用作晶体管的物质。
曾有一段时间,半导体仅限于硅和锗,只有周期表第14组的元素被认为是半导体。 然而,随着对有机和化合物半导体的研究的进展,半导体的定义也扩大到包括所有半导体物质,而不是仅仅包括一种特定类别的元素。
碳纳米管,由Dr. 饭岛住尾,和导电聚合物,由博士发现。 Hideki,是半导体领域相对较新的贡献。

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