在经历了无数变化和拖延的长途跋涉之后,旨在增加美国半导体制造业的立法终于在国会两院获得通过。 CHIPS and Science法规定,对制造半导体或芯片制造设备的新设施或扩建设施给予25%的税收减免,并在5年内为扩大半导体制造业分配约520亿美元。 这是一项2800亿美元的一揽子计划的一部分,旨在提高美国在新兴技术方面的竞争力。 此外,它与其他国家和地区推动芯片生产的倡议相吻合,这一部门日益被视为军事和经济安全的重要部门。

该法案的520亿美元预算包括用于国防部相关微电子活动的20亿美元、用于新制造业的390亿美元赠款以及用于联邦半导体研究项目和劳动力发展的110亿美元。 “25%的税收抵免意味着我们有责任赢得税收抵免,”前美国商务部助理部长伊恩·斯特夫说。 此外,该法案还规定,国家科学基金会在五年内提供2亿美元,用于”促进半导体劳动力增长”。 美国商务部称,到2025年,美国的半导体工业将需要增加90,000名工人。

另外5亿美元将用于”与外国政府伙伴协调,支持国际信息和通信技术安全和半导体供应链活动,包括支持发展和采用安全可靠的电信技术、半导体和其他新兴技术。据前商务部助理部长伊恩·斯特夫(Ian Steff)说,25%的税收抵免对于美国新产能建设与海外产能建设并驾齐驱大有帮助。 百分之二十五表示球队决心取胜。

这项立法以各种方式被推销,包括作为创造高薪就业机会的机会,作为在2020年芯片短缺后加强半导体供应链的途径,以及作为国防必需品,可以消除中国可能攻击台湾、扼杀90%最复杂逻辑供应的担忧。 所有这些都可以适用。 在政府的财政刺激下,主要芯片制造商一直在计划扩大和增加工厂。 在马耳他和纽约,全球铸造公司正在增加10亿美元。 台积电已经在亚利桑那州建造了120亿美元的设备。 此外,三星还在猜测,在奥斯汀以外的一家工厂将花费高达2000亿美元。 最详细的期望来自英特尔,很可能。 英特尔负责制造、供应链和运营的高级副总裁凯范·埃斯法贾尼(Keyvan Esfarjani)在宣布投资200亿美元兴建俄亥俄州工厂的计划时明确表示:”英特尔在俄亥俄州扩张的范围和速度……这将严重依赖《芯片法》的资金。

该企业声称,如果政府给予适当的支持,其投资总额可能在十年内达到1000亿美元。 Steff认为,要达到这一点,需要”从成立之初起就超越了政府并得到两党支持的努力”。 尽管如此,这项立法还是被无限期推迟。 同年1月通过的《2021年国防授权法》已经批准了国会最终通过的法案中包含的大部分支出。 在美国半导体行业,大部分讨论遵循哈里森所说的正常立法程序。 那些没有被纳入立法的公司或行业正在为被纳入立法而斗争,而那些已经参与立法的公司或行业则担心可动用资金会分散得稀少,因此一直努力保持立法的排他性。

最初的几个局外人成功了: 芯片封装很快被补充,随着先进处理器制造商发现他们无法从一块硅片中榨取足够的计算能力,芯片封装变得更加重要。 将法案扩大到制造范围之外的努力几乎一直持续到最后。 据报道,AMD、Nvidia、Qualcomm等公司的芯片设计者对不参与这一做法表示失望。 哈里森认为,让这些条款具有足够的包容性,以实现将芯片制造业带入美国的目标,”而不会使其变得如此包容,这就意味着在谁允许进入和谁不允许之间取得平衡。 他们决定做一些比他们最初认为的稍微大一点的事情,但是它仍然集中在

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