已故的雷斯脱F。 伊斯特曼和乌梅什·K。 米什拉在本杂志2022年5月号上主张了当时在电力半导体领域遥不可及的氮化镓(GaN)。 它们为雷达、电网电力交换应用以及当时新兴的宽带无线网络中的强大、强大的射频放大器提供了积极的前景。 “迄今为止最难的晶体管”是他们描述氮化镓器件的方式。 伊斯曼和米什拉是对的。 氮化镓的宽频带隙——释放束缚电子并促进传导所需要的能量——和其他特性使我们能够利用这种材料对强电场的抵抗力,从而制造出具有前所未闻性能的器件。

毫无疑问,氮化镓是目前固态射频功率应用的最佳材料。 它已经被用于雷达和5G无线,不久将广泛应用于电动汽车电源逆变器。 即使是体积小、功能强大的基于GaN的USB壁式充电器,现在也可以购买。 但还有更好的选择吗? 能提高射频放大器的效率和功率的东西 吗? 是什么让电力电子设备变得更小,从汽车和飞机上损失了无价的公斤和立方厘米电子设备? 我们能找到仍然导电但带隙更宽的物质吗?

实际上,带隙高的材料有很多种,但由于量子力学的怪癖,几乎没有任何材料可以作为半导体使用的材料。 但是,一种透明导电氧化物镓(Ga2O3)非常显眼。 这种晶体的带隙分别比硅(1.1eV)和GaN(3.4eV)的带隙高出1.5英里和近5电子伏。 虽然金刚石和氮化铝具有较宽的带隙,但Ga2O3具有独特的性能,使其成为生产低成本但极其有效的器件的理想材料。 仅仅拥有宽的带隙对于材料是不够的。 否则,它们不会作为绝缘体很有用,所有的电介质和陶瓷都是如此。 然而,氧化镓具有一套特殊的特性,可以使其作为射频电子和功率开关的半导体非常有效。

信息图表示半导体的五个基本特性。 临界电场强度高是半导体必不可少的5个因素中β-氧化镓的最大优点。 该特性促进了高压开关,也可能表明射频设备是健壮的。 β-镓氧化物的主要缺点是其导热性差,这使得热量在器件内部积聚。 这些特性之一是能够掺杂氧化镓以添加电荷载体和提高电导率。 为了改变半导体中电荷载体的浓度,掺杂需要向晶体中添加一定量的杂质。

为了分别用磷或硼从硅晶体中添加或去除自由电子,分别使用离子注入和随后的退火来掺杂材料。 这使得电荷可以自由流动。 类似的硅掺杂可以在Ga2O3中用于向晶体中添加电子。 在任何其它宽带隙氧化物中试试,你得到的只是一块破碎的晶体和晶格,上面粘着电荷点。 由于氧化镓易于通过离子注入和外延生长(沉积额外晶体)过程中添加的掺杂剂,我们得以借用各种既定的商业光刻和加工技术。 借助这些技术,在数十纳米内定义晶体管尺寸和创建多种器件拓扑相对简单。

这种极其有用的特性是其他具有宽带隙的半导体材料所没有的。 这是连氮化镓都不能提出的主张。 另一个好处是,就这些事情而言,制造大型的晶体Ga2O3晶片其实很简单。 虽然有各种各样的Ga2O3晶体类型。 由于柏林的Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzürchtung和日本筑波的国家材料科学研究所的创新工作,-Ga2O3的散装特性在这些研究中最受关注。 -Ga2O3的独特特点是,可以利用制造硅片的Czochralski法等工艺,大量商业化生产。 边缘定义的薄膜馈送晶体生长法,用于为杂货店结帐条形码扫描器创建蓝宝石窗口的方法,也可以用于创建 -Ga2O3 晶片。

Bridgman-Stockbarger 高度可伸缩的垂直技术现在甚至被用于晶体生长。 与其他宽带隙半导体相比,很难夸大这种状况的独特性。 除了碳化硅(SiC)之外,没有其他新的宽带隙半导体衬底可以生长大晶体。 因此,它们必须种植在由不同材料制成的光盘上,因为光盘价格昂贵。

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https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/shrink-bundlers-market-size-2022—2028-development-deployment-growth-factor-quantitative-analysis-mode-of-integration-growth-opportunity-2022-12-14
https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/secondary-research-is-used-to-construct-the-asbestos-glove-market-projections-which-are-then-cross-validated-by-interacting-with-key-industry-participants-2022-12-14
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