金融政策の主要頭脳は「過去の技術進歩の波を超える規模で人工知能が雇用を代替する可能性を真剣に考慮していた」というのが、ベンチャー投資家であり人工知能研究所のイ·カイフ院長の説明だ。失業.。

技術開発によって失われている雇用があるにもかかわらず、失業に対する不安とパニックが浮き彫りになっている。 やはり、自分の考え方を専門とする社員が必要ですが、これらのライターは、私が以前、パレットに袋や箱を積み上げる社員の代わりに、材料を扱うロボットを生産する会社のゼネラルマネージャーを務めていたことを見落としていたと思います。 ロボットのコントロールはデジタルで、ノートパソコンとよく似ています。 このアーキテクチャはバイナリロジックに基づいており、トランジスタ(オン/オフスイッチ)、中央プロセッサユニット(CPU)、何らかのオペレーティングシステム(Windowsなど)、トランジスタ(0と1sでコード化された命令)を組み込んでいます。

コンピュータは線形アーキテクチャを持ち、時間の経過とともにサイズ、速度、容量が拡張されています。 1971年の最初のインテルCPUのトランジスタ2300個とは対照的に、インテルPentiumチップは2011年までに23億個のトランジスタを保有しています。 多くの人が、スーパーコンピューターの発達が、ついに人間の脳の速度と効率に近づけたと考えています。重要な要素

技術開発によって失われている雇用があるにもかかわらず、失業に対する不安とパニックが浮き彫りになっている。 それでも、自分自身の考え方を専門とする社員が必要ですが、これらの作家は皆、重要な要素を見落としていると思います。

30年間、私は労働集約的な手動(時には背中を折る)作業を軽減する自動装置とロボットの設置を管理してきました。 生産ラインの自動化は1950年代から行われています。
しかし、自動化できる職業の数を制限する明確な技術的制約と障害があると主張したい。

人間の脳

人間の脳は現代のデジタルコンピュータのようには作られていません。 それは特定のタイプの連続体符号化アナログニューラルネットワークです。 これには思考プロセスに関わる重要な要素が含まれていますが、デジタルコンピュータとは全く異なる方法で動作し、相互作用します。

脳が学習し、考え、感知し、記憶を維持し、他の多様な業務を遂行する能力は、主にニューロンに依存する。 平均的な脳には少なくとも1,000億個のニューロンがあり、それぞれが電気的、化学的なメッセージ伝達の役割をする数百万個のシナプスによって軸索細胞、樹枝状細胞、グリア細胞に連結されている。 それらはオンまたはオフになる可能性があるため、シナプスはトランジスタに最も似ています。

各ニューロンは、別々の生きた細胞とコンピュータとして機能します。 ニューロンの処理能力は、数千の人工トランジスタの処理能力に相当します。 トランジスタとは対照的に、ニューロンはシナプスを変化させ、インパルスの周波数を変化させる可能性があります。 それぞれのニューロンが他の1万個のニューロンと通信する能力です

脳は、決まったデザインのデジタルコンピューターとは異なり、学習と適応のためにニューロンを持続的に再配線することができる。 ニューラルネットワークは、巨大なネットワークであるニューラルネットワークで、プログラミングの代わりに、実行と記憶によって学習するため、脳がパターンをよく認識するのに役立ちます。

デジタルコンピュータの制限事項

マイクロプロセッサ回路の大きさを減らしトランジスタを毎年増やすことができるようになったおかげで人々は人間の脳に本当にマッチできると考え始めました しかし、問題があります。

1つ目は、デジタルコンピュータ上のすべての計算はCPUを経由する必要があるため、最終的にはソフトウェアが遅延します。 人間の脳ははるかに効果的で、CPUを必要としません。

2つ目の問題は、回路の削減には限界があるということです。 インテルが1971年に4004CPUを発表したとき、2,300個のトランジスタを搭載し、それぞれのトランジスタの幅は約10ミクロンでした。 現代のペンティアムチップ上のトランジスタは幅が22ナノメートル(ナノメートルは10億分の1メートル)に過ぎない。

3つ目の問題は、本当に巨大なスーパーコンピューターを開発するために、コンピュータ科学者が速度と容量を上げるために数十億のトランジスタと数百のCPUを追加しなければならなかったことです。 3.5ポンドの脳と比較すると、これは処理能力を向上させるにはかなり効果的ではない方法のように見えます。 人間の脳をシミュレートするには、全く新しい戦略が必要です。

カク道夫の著書「心の未来」によると、最新のIBMスーパーコンピューターであるブルージーン/Qセコイアは、毎秒20兆1000億回の速度で計算を行うことができる。 しかし、このような速度で作動するためには7.9メガワットの電力が必要だ。

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