这种特殊类型的光传感器将光能转换为电能(电压或电流)。 PN结半导体器件的一种形式是光电二极管。 在p(正)层和n(负)层之间存在一个内在层。 为了产生电流,光电二极管接收光能作为输入。

它也可以称为光检测器、光电检测器或光电传感器。 光电二极管的p侧连接到电池(或电源)的负极端子,n侧连接到电池的正极端子以进行反向偏置操作。

硅 、 锗 、 砷化镓磷化铟和砷化镓铟是常见的光电二极管元件.

光电二极管包括表面积、光学滤光片和内置透镜。 通过增加光电二极管表面积可以缩短响应时间。 只有少数光电二极管将类似于灯泡(LED)。 如下图所示,它有两个终端。 较长的端子用作阳极,较小的端子用作阴极。

光电二极管的工作
共价键通常被离子化时,用光照射PN结。 空穴和电子对由此产生。 电子空穴对的产生导致了光电流的发展。 当能量大于1.1eV的光子撞击二极管时,就会产生电子空穴对。 当光子接近二极管的耗尽区时,它以巨大的能量撞击原子。 结果,电子从原子的结构中释放出来。 自由电子和空穴是在电子释放后产生的。

通常,空穴带正电荷,而电子带负电荷。 将有一个电场集成到耗尽能量中。 由于这种电场,电子空穴偶会远离结点。 因此,为了产生光电流,空穴流向阳极,电子流向阴极。

光子能量和光子吸收强度是成正比的。 当光子能量较低时,吸收量会更大。 内部光电效应是整个过程的名字。

光子激发发生的两种机制是内在激发和外在激发。 当光子激发价带中的电子并将其移动到传导带时,就会发生本征激发。

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