美国劳工部公布的数据显示,美国10月份通货膨胀控制住了经济,尽管劳动力市场不断增长,失业率不断下降,但物价仍然居高不下。

何谓通胀,何谓通胀?

通货膨胀是物价的总体上涨和货币购买价值的下降。 通货膨胀的主要类型是需求拉动通货膨胀、成本推动通货膨胀和内在通货膨胀。

需求拉动型通货膨胀发生在资金过多追逐商品过少的时候。 当人们竞相购买商品时,这给价格带来了上行压力。 成本推动型通货膨胀发生在生产成本增加,导致消费者价格上涨。 内在通胀是工资-价格螺旋上升,工资和物价同时上涨。

通货膨胀对经济既有积极影响也有消极影响。 如果提高工资、提高消费者的消费能力,将是有益的。 但是,如果导致投资收益率下降、利率上升或货币贬值,也会有害。

近年来通胀率相对较低,但2017年又开始回升。 这主要是因为能源和粮食价格上涨。 虽然更高的通货膨胀率可能是经济增长的信号,但如果它开始超过工资增长或其他形式的收入,它也会给家庭和企业带来问题。

美国的通货膨胀率。

美国劳工统计局的最新数据显示,10月份美国的通货膨胀率稳定在2.0%左右。 这与9月份持平,与10月份结束的12个月期间的通货膨胀率持平。

10月份,除食品和能源以外的所有商品的价格上涨了0.2%,与9月份持平。 排除这些变动性项目的核心通货膨胀率已经连续4个月上升。

通货膨胀的最大驱动力是住房、医疗和娱乐价格上涨。 粮食和能源价格本月略有下降。

总体而言,通货膨胀近年来相对平稳,自2010年以来平均约为2%。 然而,有迹象表明,在今年早些时候一段低通胀期之后,该指数可能再次开始回升。 随着经济接近充分就业和工资开始上涨,我们可以看到通货膨胀在未来几个月会上升。

我们如何衡量通胀的影响?

自大萧条以来,通货膨胀一直是美国经济的主要担忧,当时商品和服务价格飙升,经济萧条。 此后,美联储一直在努力遏制通货膨胀,但这仍然是一项棘手的工作。

有几种不同的方法来衡量通货膨胀。 最常见的是消费者价格指数(CPI),该指数跟踪了一篮子通常由消费者购买的商品和服务的价格。 消费物价指数可用于衡量国家和地方一级的通货膨胀。

另一种衡量通货膨胀的方法是通过生产者价格指数(PPI)来衡量。 该指数跟踪生产者或批发商的产品和服务价格。 这些信息可以用来了解企业感受到的通胀压力有多大,这有助于预测未来的消费者价格变化。

最后,经济学家经常使用个人消费支出平减指数(PCE平减指数)来衡量通货膨胀。 该指数跟踪家庭消费的所有最终商品和服务价格变化。 由于它包含如此广泛的项目,它被认为是衡量通货膨胀的最全面的措施之一。

这 3项措施可以让我们清楚了解通胀对整体经济的影响。 然而,它们各有长处和短处,因此,在试图了解完整情况时,必须考虑到所有这些长处和短处。

为什么更高的通胀率很重要?

较高的通货膨胀率很重要,因为它可能导致更高的利率,然后导致经济活动减少。 此外,较高的通货膨胀率也可能导致生活费用的增加,以及消费者的购买力下降。

高通胀率如何伤害美国人民的例子

高通货膨胀率使美国人难以负担食品和住房等基本必需品,从而伤害了他们。 此外,高通货膨胀率使人们难以为退休储蓄或为自己的未来计划。

有固定收入的人,如社会保障或养恤金福利,尤其受到通货膨胀的伤害,因为他们的收入跟不上不断上涨的生活成本。 这可能导致财政困难,甚至贫穷。

通货膨胀也使企业难以规划和预算,这可能导致裁员和经济活动的减少。 这伤害了所有人,因为它减少了流通量,减缓了经济。

美联储已经采取措施试图控制通货膨胀,但迄今为止这些举措并不成功。 政府控制通货膨胀很重要,这样人们就可以开始重新规划自己的未来,而不必担心如何维持收支平衡。

四. 结论

美国联邦储备委员会(Federal Reserve)周三表示,10月份美国联邦储备委员会(Federal Reserve)的首选通胀指标较上年同期小幅上涨0.2%。 这标志着年收益连续第三个月低于2%。 自2012年通过该目标以来,央行一直在努力推动通胀接近2%的目标。 低稳定通胀是健康经济的关键,但过度通胀也有害。

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