私たちが運転する車から家の家具まで、アメリカの製造業は私たちの周りにあります。 実際、私たちの人生には、何らかの形でそれに感動しない側面はほとんどない。 しかし、どこにでもあるにもかかわらず、製造業はしばしば誤解されています。 多くの人にとって、米国が世界一の経済大国だった過去の煙突や組立ラインのイメージを思い起こさせる。 実際のところ、製造業はアメリカのいたるところで活躍している重要な産業である。 このブログ記事では、アメリカの製造業が私たちを取り巻くいくつかの方法について見ていきます。
製造業の重要性
世界経済において、製造業は依然としてアメリカ経済の重要な部分であるということを忘れがちです。
製造業は、農業、輸送、エネルギー、建設を含む他の多くの産業およびセクターに貢献しています。 実際、製造業がなければ、私たちが毎日頼りにしている多くの製品やサービスを利用することはできないでしょう。
アメリカの製造業も主要な雇用源です。 2016年には1200万人以上のアメリカ人が製造業の仕事に従事していました。 そして、これらは単にスキルの低い仕事や低賃金の仕事ではなく、製造業の労働者の平均給与は年間7万ドル近くです。
では、なぜ製造業はそんなに重要なのでしょうか。 いくつかの理由があります。
1) 製造業は経済の多様化に役立ち、他国への依存度を下げる。
2) 製造業は他の産業やセクターをサポートするのに役立ちます。
3) 製造業はアメリカ人労働者に高賃金の仕事を提供する。
4) 製造業は、私たちが日々頼りにしている製品を生み出します。
アメリカ製造業の歴史
アメリカの初期の頃、製造は小さな店で手作業で行われることが多かった。 国が成長し、工業化するにつれて、全国の都市に工場が生まれ始めました。 アメリカの製造業は20世紀半ばにピークに達しました。その頃、工場は好況経済の需要に応えるために急速なペースで製品を生産していました。
今、アメリカの製造業は、世紀半ばの全盛期からやや後退しているものの、依然として経済の重要な部分を占めています。 現在では、かつてよりも工場が少なく、製造業で働く人も少なくなっています。 しかし、多くのアメリカの製造業者は依然として業界の世界的リーダーであり、製造業は依然としてアメリカ経済の重要な一部として残っています。
アメリカ製造業の未来
アメリカの製造業の未来は明るい。 製造業の仕事に興味を持っている才能のある若者がたくさんいます。 彼らは手を使って仕事をし、人々が毎日使うものを作れるという考えに惹かれます。

問題は、この業界で働きたい才能のある若者全員にとって、製造業の仕事が十分ではないということです。 アメリカの製造業の将来は、企業がより多くの雇用を創出する方法を見つけることにかかっています。 その一つの方法は、工場をより効率的にする新しい技術に投資することです。
製造業でより多くの雇用を創出するもう一つの方法は、他の国から生産を米国に戻すことです。 そのためには、企業は新しい設備や設備に投資する必要がありますが、それによってアメリカ人の雇用も生まれます。
アメリカの製造業の将来は不透明だが、それが強固であることを確実にするために、いくつかの措置を取ることができる。 新技術に投資し、生産を米国に戻すことで、企業は雇用を創出し、経済を前進させ続けることができます。
さまざまなタイプの製造
製造には、主に次の3つのタイプがあります。
1.Jobshopmanufacturingアメリカで最も一般的な製造形態であり、カスタマイズされた製品の低~中規模の生産を伴う。
2.大量生産:標準化された製品を大量に生産することが特徴です。
3.連続流動製造:生産工程を通して材料と製品が連続的に流れ続けることを特徴とする製造方法。
製造業が経済に与える影響
米国では、1970年代以降、製造業の生産量が着実に減少している。 これは、海外からの競争が激化したことや、製造業の雇用の必要性が減少した自動化などの効率性の向上によるものもある。 この減少の影響は、良い意味でも悪い意味でも、経済全体に及んでいる。
肯定的な側面としては、製造業の減少は生産性と生活水準の向上を伴う。 製造業の雇用が減少するにつれ、労働者は生産性を高め、より高い賃金を得ることができる経済の他の部門に移動しました。 これは多くのアメリカ人の経済成長を促進し、生活水準を向上させるのに役立っています。
マイナス面としては、製造業の減少が不平等と貧困の大きな要因となっている。

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