明尼苏达大学双城分校的研究人员开发了一种新工具,帮助半导体制造商利用氟化化学品生产电子产品和其他先进技术。

含氟化学品

氟化物用于蚀刻、清洗、沉积等多种半导体制造工艺。 它们对于半导体生产和半导体新技术的发展是必不可少的。

氟化化学品用于蚀刻,因为它们可以有选择地从表面去除材料,而不会损坏底层。 这使得它们非常适合在精度至关重要的半导体制造中使用。 氟化化学品也用于清洁过程,因为它们可以有效去除表面的污染物,而不会损害底层材料。 在沉积过程中,氟化物被用来沉积材料薄膜到表面。 该工艺用于制造具有精确尺寸和电性能的半导体器件。

氟化物在半导体制造和创新中起着至关重要的作用。 没有它们,就不可能生产出现代电子产品所必需的高品质半导体器件。

含氟化学品的问题是什么?

氟化物在半导体制造过程中是必不可少的,但也有可能成为问题。 这些化学药品用于在硅片上蚀刻电路和清洁生产过程中使用的设备。 它们也可以用作润滑剂和传热流体。

然而,含氟化学品也可能很危险。 它们可以向大气中释放有害气体,污染水源,给接触它们的人带来健康问题。 它们也可能难以妥善处理。

C8/PFOA污染

多年来,C8/PFOA污染一直是半导体行业关注的问题。 2016年,由美国国家科学院召集的独立专家组发布了一份报告,该报告发现”没有一致的证据”将C8/PFOA暴露在人体中的任何健康影响中联系起来。 然而,报告还发现,存在”有限的和暗示性的证据”与C8/PFOA暴露在肾癌和睾丸癌大鼠之间有关。

为了回应这些发现,半导体工业协会(SIA)已采取措施,减少世界各地半导体制造设施的C8/PFOA排放量。 新航还设立了一个自愿的管理方案,以逐步淘汰半导体制造中使用含C8/PFOA的化学品。

C8/PFOA的解决办法

对于C8/PFOA污染问题有各种各样的解决办法,但它们都带来了权衡。

第一个解决方案就是停止使用 C8/PFOA。 这是最直接的方法,但很难找到同样有效和负担得起的替代化学品。 在某些情况下,公司已经能够切换到不同的氟化物,但这并不总是可能的。

另一种解决办法是在C8/PFOA废物被排放到环境中之前对其进行处理。 这可以通过一种叫做热氧化的方法来实现,热氧化将化学物质分解成危害较小的分子。 然而,这一过程可能很昂贵,对所有公司来说可能并不可行。

第三个解决方案是在 C8/PFOA 发布到环境中之前捕获和重用它。 这可以通过一个称为回收和再循环的过程来实现。 回收工作包括在废水排放前收集C8/PFOA。 循环利用包括分解C8/PFOA分子以便它们能够再次使用。 这两个过程都可能成本高昂,但对于一些公司来说,它们可能是最好的选择。

无论选择哪种解决方案,重要的是要记住,C8/PFOA污染是一个需要解决的严重问题。

C8/PFOA的替代品

氟化化学品用于各种用途,包括半导体制造。 然而,有一些替代使用这些化学品的办法。

一种选择是使用氢氟酸(HF)。 高频是一种能腐蚀玻璃和金属的强酸。 它也用于半导体生产。 然而,高频是一种危险的化学物质,如果吸入或摄入,可能会造成严重的健康问题。

另一种选择是使用全氟辛酸(PFOA)。 PFOA是一种合成含氟有机化合物,过去一直被用作表面活性剂和润滑剂。 然而,全氟辛烷磺酸与各种健康问题有关,例如癌症和发展问题。 因此,许多公司已经停止使用PFOA。

最后,另一种选择是使用氟气(F2)。 F2是一种高活性气体,可用于蚀刻表面。 它也用于半导体生产。 然而,F2是非常危险的,如果处理不当可能会引起爆炸。

四. 结论

氟化物是半导体制造和创新的重要组成部分。 没有它们,半导体工业就不会像今天这样。 氟化化学品使制造商能够生产更小、更快、更可靠的半导体产品。 它们对于确保半导体制造过程的安全也是至关重要的。 虽然有人担心氟化化学品的潜在健康和环境影响,但其好处大于这些风险。

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